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Stage Lighting Basics Raiders


     Currently, there are a lot of agencies, institutions, associations, companies and so built their own halls, auditorium, multi-purpose halls and other arts venues, requires some appropriate professional lighting facilities, the lack of understanding of stage lighting, as how to choose the right professional lighting equipment, and a lot of professional lighting equipment vendors who are also on the professional stage lighting equipment scanty, can not give proper guidance to lead to a waste of money. In order to avoid the above situation, this article introduces you to do some simple basic knowledge of stage lighting. 


     (A) Common light bit of stage lighting 

     To do professional stage light configurations, first understand the common light-bit stage lighting, which is the correct selection of the configuration of an important part. 

     1. The surface light: from the top toward the front of the stage the audience light, a major role for the characters and the entire front lighting basic optical shop dye. 

     2. slap in the face: Located on both sides of Taiwan estuary, oblique light cast on stage, is divided into several layers, the main shop help surface light, enhance facial lighting, increase the figures, three-dimensional scene. 

     3. The column of light (also known sidelight): from the inside on both sides of the Taiwan population projected light, mainly for the characters and scenery of both sides of the lighting, increased stereoscopic sense of contour. 

     4. Top light: from the stage above the stage toward the light, from front to rear into a row of top light, top light two rows, three rows of the top light, mainly used for general stage lighting, stage illumination increases, and there are many scenes props sentinel exposure.

     5. Backlight: Self-stage reverse direction projected light (such as the top light, bridges such as the direction of light exposure), you can sketch out the characters, scene outline, enhanced three-dimensional sense and clarity, but also as a specific source. 

     6. Bridge of light: the stage on both sides of the bridge toward the light at the arena, mainly for auxiliary pillar of light, enhanced three-dimensional, but also for other light projection orientation bit inconvenient, but also as a particular light source 

     7. foot light: from the platen proscenium stage in front of the projected light, the main supporting surface lighting and eliminate shadows and other high surface light illuminated the characters face and jaw formed. 

     8. The world ranked light: from above and below the canopy of the sky toward the light, the color change is mainly used for lighting and canopy. 

     9. The flow of light: in the flow of light shelves on both sides of the stage, the main auxiliary bridge of light, complementary sides of the stage lighting and other specific light. 

     10. chasing light: from the auditorium or other location required a light bit, mainly for track performers or highlight a particular light, but also for the host, is a close-up of the pen stagecraft, play a finishing touch. 

     (B) Common fixtures and features 

     1. Spotlight: Stage lighting is the most widely used one of the major lamp types. It focused light irradiation spot contour edge is more clear, to highlight a local, but also to enlarge the spot lighting an area, as a stage main source, commonly used in surface light, slap in the face, side and other light bits. 

     2. Wash Light: light, soft symmetry, both prominent a part of, and no stiff spots, a few lights to facilitate convergence. Commonly used in the column of light, the flow of light and other light bit closer. 

     3. Back light: it is a reflective lamps, which is characterized by light, hard, according to high and long range, is an economical and efficient bright lights. 

     4. astigmatism light: the light diffuse, symmetrical, large projection area, divided into day row to row astigmatism and astigmatism, commonly used in sky irradiation can also be used for general lighting theater podium. 

     5. modeling lamp: Principles between chasing lights and spotlights, is a special fixture, mainly for the characters and scenery modeling projection. 

     6. foot light (also known as strip lights): light, soft, wide-ranging area. Mainly as the middle ground, Netscape light cloth, cloth color, but also supporting surface light illumination in the proscenium position. 

     7. beam lamp (also known as Down): currently more widely used, can be used to illuminate the characters and scenery all places, can also be installed directly on the stage, the audience is exposed to form a lamp array, do stage decoration and lighting dual role. 

     8. Slide and Sky King voted effect lights: You can form an overall picture, and a variety of special effects on the stage backdrop, such as: wind, rain, thunder, electricity, water, fire, smoke, clouds and so on. 

     9. Fixtures: This is an RS232 or PMX by DMX512 signal control or intelligent lighting, its light color, spot illumination are superior over conventional lamps, in recent years the rapid development of an intelligent lighting, often mounted on the surface of the light , top light, stage after stage and other locations, which runs the color, shape, etc. can be compiled to run the program in Fig. Due to different power sizes, for use on stage to be different. Usually low-power computer lights, only for ballroom use. Low-power computer on the stage lights line, the spot is often spotlight on stage, back light fade away, so the choice to pay special attention. 

     10. chasing light: stage lighting fixtures are characterized by high brightness, the use of a lens imaging, can present a clear spot, by adjusting the focal length, but also to change the spot the actual situation. There is activity light bar, you can easily change color, light body can freely operate and so on. Current market varieties, labeling index is not the same way to power a standard such as: 1KW halogen light source, 1KW metal halide light source, 2KW metal halide light source, but also to distance the standard chasing light (in particular distance light intensity, illumination), such as chasing light 8-10m, 15-30m chasing light, 30-50m track lights, track lights, etc. 50-80, and in the functional area is divided into: mechanical chasing light its focus, light bar, change color are done manually; the other is a computer chasing light, its focus, light bar, change color, adjust the color temperature are automatically completed by sliding appliances, they must be in the selection careful selection of the various indicators. 

     (C) the stage lights for color 

     For color design promotion, greatly simplifying the number of stage lighting, reducing the labor intensity of the light workers, but also saves the amount of investment, so it is a currently indispensable instrument configuration stage, there are mainly machinery on the market change the color and two-color dot and converter. 

     1. The stage machinery for color: its simple design, low price for the mid-1980s to 1990s mainstream products, currently close to elimination. 

     2. Stage computer for color: in recent years developed a new type of color changer, which uses international standard DMX-512 signal output by the dedicated control Lu control can also be connected to a computer dimming use, it more mode, high-precision, high-capacity, control of distance and other characteristics of the market for color to become a mainstream product. 

     (D) lighting control equipment 

     The current market dimmer dimmer main analog and digital dimmers. 

     1. Analog Dimmer: using analog dimming technology, the output signal is 0-10v one output. General analog dimmers designed to be simple, less controller Road, dimming curve is poor, but lower market prices, easy to learn to master, as the late 1970s to the mid-1990s, mainstream products. Common are 3-way, 6-way, 9 Road, 12 Road, 18 Road, 24 Road, 60 Road, 120 lights, each power mostly 8KW, but there 2KW, 4KW, etc., paths a few more for one machine, road number to split type. 

     2. Digital Dimmer: Using sound machine technology for DM512 digital signal. Digital dimming easy to use, its dimming function, the backup function, grouping functions, dimming curves are better than analog dimming units, performance prices are more reasonable. In the understanding of the lamp bit, lighting features and control equipment and for color, you can according to different characteristics, scale size to use. 

     (E) theater stage lighting configuration 

     There are many in the theater stage, a common proscenium stage, have thrust stage, there is an island stage, the stage is also known as the black box, because the stage different forms, so the configuration requirements are not the same fixture. As an ordinary proscenium stage, this stage whether in the past or is now rebuilt and a new theater than more, so this stage lighting configuration even more dire need and necessary. 

     Stage (mean proscenium stage) due to the performance repertoire of different lighting requirements will vary, it is necessary to clearly show what kind of repertoire before equipped with lighting in this arena based, so it will have more configuration lamps clear goals and intentions. If the stage is positioned to perform traditional opera or ballet-based, the lamps must be configured on opera, ballet demands to configure. Such as large-scale song and dance, acrobatics and other special programs based, in addition to the basic requirements of the lighting configuration outside, you should configure special lamps and luminaires bit depending on the program requirements. 

     Before configuring lamps, luminaires should first understand the types and main functions and purposes. Here I introduce some simple performance lamps for lighting configuration choices. 

     1. Spotlight: spotlight on the stage with the front lights use refers to a plano-convex condenser lens terms, this lamp can adjust the spot size, out of the more concentrated beam, next to the diffuse light is relatively small, with 0.5W power to 5KW variety, focus has long, medium and short points, depending on the distance from the shot to be chosen according to demand. 

     2. Rib Light: or soft light, but in the TV section is called the spotlight. In terms of the difference between the above stage plano-convex spotlight casual and soft, so use up a large diffusion region, sometimes in order to control the diffusion of light in front of the mirror plus the title page to pass block, which is characterized by a light area, it is not like the spotlight there are obviously feeling the spot, shot from the close, the power has 1KW, 2KW other. 

     3. The back light: This front lamp without lens, the brightness is brighter than the condenser, on stage to demonstrate the use of strong light and brightness. Which is characterized by a strong beam, but when dimming focal point to note, is not appropriate to adjust the focus point on the color paper or screen, so prone to burning, the other at the time of dimming, the center often appear black heart, black heart in order to avoid, in the light the front end of the center plus an annular baffle, which emits large and difficult to spot collapsed. Now the new one on the reflector coating so that the line outside after transmission to reduce the temperature of the lamp in front, use a good effect, the name of the super cold spotlight, the actual structure of the lamp is the same with the back light. 

     4. spotlight: or molding lights, ellipsoidal spotlight. The beam angle can be selected based on a variety of applications, such as a slide like the main feature is able to spot a variety of shapes cut into square, diamond, triangle, etc., or projected for all kinds of design patterns. 

     5. Down: also known as PAR lamps, beam lamps, its structure is mounted in the cylinder by a mirror bulbs, the main feature is relatively fixed beam emitted from the beam width of a variety of angles, spot size can not be adjusted. 

     6. Days row of lights: High astigmatism lights used to illuminate the sky from the top down by requiring bright and balanced, large illuminated area. 

     7. bar lights: power of astigmatism lights, used on the stage surface, the lower canopy light upward, and the days of discharge lamp illumination light phase, up and down evenly. 

     8. astigmatism strip light: a long strip, divided into multiple cells, generally can be divided into three or four colors, each with incandescent bulbs power grid at about 200W, require a variety of colors since the phase uniform, large-area illumination curtain or painted curtain , can also be used as a large area with a balanced light spread, various colors of light can also be used simultaneously, adjusting the different colored beams. 


     9. General astigmatism light: halogen lamp as well as ordinary floodlights, mainly uniformly illuminate a certain area, or some scenery purposes. 

     Lamps described above, the stage used for general basic lighting, but the performances of the different forms of repertoire should also configure other types of lamps. In addition to basic dance party, such as lighting, extensive use of downlights, computer lights, tube lights and other lighting effects, or even configuration smoke, a dry ice machine, strobe light, laser and projection slides, as well as for supporting the use of post cast light, reducing light spots, special seamless plastic, etc.

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